His current research projects include legitimacy and counter-terrorism policing, corruption among prospective elites, sentencing decision-making in Ghana, the death penalty in Africa, and police self-legitimacy. Students interested in doctoral studies in any of these areas of interest should contact Justice with a synopsis of their research proposal. International Criminal Justice Review, doi. Policing and Society 28 5 : — Wain, N. Policing and Society doi.
European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 20 2 : Tankebe, J. Policing and Eudaemonic Legitimation in Ghana. Criminology 51 1 : Bottoms, A. Journal of Criminology and Security 14 2 : Tankebe, J. British Journal of Criminology 50 2 : Tankebe, J.
Law and Society Review 43 2 : Tankebe, J. Policing, procedural fairness and public behaviour: A review and critique. Colonialism, legitimation, and policing in Ghana. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 36 1 : New York: Springer Tankebe, J. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Book Chapters Bottoms, A. Asp eds.earoutmede.tk
Publications - Ikarian Centre for Social and Political Research
Criminal Law and the Authority of the State. Oxford: Hart Publishing Tankebe, J. Kane eds. Oxford Handbook of Police and Policing. E and Tankebe, J. Tankebe and A. Liebling eds.
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Cheliotis ed. But it is likely that more than one thousand people lost their lives during these events; the police were reluctant to register all deaths. Engineer reported that Muslims and 50 Hindus died, and that persons were missing, bringing a plausible total death toll to 1, Fifty- to sixty thousand persons were also made refugees. The conspicuous partiality of the district and police administrations; and the state government's delay in reacting were stressed by several commentators.
Five days before the riots, the Congress-led state administration had received a letter from a local officer, requesting the removal of the superintendent of police, Dvivedi, and the district magistrate, Arun Jha, who had previously acted irresponsibly in their handling of communal tensions.
The state government simply ignored the proposal. That proved to be a terrible mistake. A belated trial took place in of the considerable number of persons originally charged, only twenty-four were eventually judged.
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Fourteen of them, including two police officers, were found guilty. In November , the long-awaited general elections were held, together with a series of assembly elections, some of them in sensitive constituencies.
At the Centre, the Congress Party had to pay dearly for its past errors. Singh, whose recently born National Front included a number of lobbies and regional parties, and had even the support of the BJP and of the Communist parties. A strong counter-fire was urgent. The only way for the BJP was to revive the Mandir temple issue as forcefully as possible Jaffrelot — Advani , leading on a colorful truck with the Ram idol on its front, and again crores of devotees, from all shades and castes, offering flowers, and even, at times, their own blood.
The yatra left Somnath Gujarat and its famous temple on September 25, The procession was scheduled to reach Ayodhya Uttar Pradesh after some 10, kilometers of ecstatic crowds but, also, predictably, leaving a bloody trail in its wake Engineer c. Obviously, this flamboyant procession was not sufficient for the Sangh Parivar: at the same time, another yatra marched, carrying torches and lights in various UP cities the Ram Jyoti Yatra. It was met with the same enthusiasm and the same violence.
As was the case in but this time more systematically-one city after another fell prey to rioters. Each of these riots, of course, had its own story, starting with rumors and being fed by various agents, Hindu networks, local rivalries, communal irritants, and political ambitions. Ultimately, it underlined the major role that is devolved in India to the administration, to the police largely pro-Hindu , and to local DMs district magistrate , whether they know their districts well or not in the case of a recent transfer, for example. Each one displays either courage or passivity Saksena It should be noted that several CMs chief ministers had taken strong measures, with preventive arrests, as was the case in West Bengal, where the Left Front, with its CPM Communist Party of India [Marxist] chief minister, Jyoti Basu , had a good opportunity to demonstrate its secular commitments Zins Advani's yatra at the border between Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Singh's conciliatory efforts, the BJP withdrew its support from the Central government. Singh P. Jha He had to make room for a Janata dissident, Chandra Shekar, who became the new prime minister, and whose government depended entirely upon the support of the Congress Party. It did not last. To add to the uneasiness felt in Muslim circles who had lost the support of V.
Singh, the First Gulf War was clouding their sympathies: Saddam Hussein was extremely popular among them, but they hardly dared express their support for him Wright At home, the sinister list of riots was becoming longer and longer, especially after the bloody Ram Navami festival celebrating the birth of Ram in March Just before the first round of elections could be held, violence swept Uttar Pradesh. The nation was deeply shocked, and this helped the Congress party to win a thin majority at the polls in the tenth Lok Sabha elections. Together with a first-rate economist, Dr.
Manmohan Singh, he managed to completely change India's economic landscape. Unfortunately, he would not demonstrate the same clear views and determination on the communal front, and this, at a time when the UP political scene was entirely new Graff : the BJP had won the Assembly elections; the secular Mulayam Singh Yadav had to leave the gaddi throne in Lucknow, and the new CM was a Hindutva man, Kalyan Singh , who, it should be noted, did not belong to the upper castes but to the OBC Other Backward Classes.
It was an additional challenge. In UP itself, Kalyan Singh appeared cautious and obviously willing to negotiate. In September , his government acquired 2. Obviously, a new stage had been reached. The land acquisition was challenged by the Supreme Court, and feverish talks followed between various Action Committees, the National Integration Council, lawyers, and other concerned actors. A symbolic Kar Seva religious gathering was to be held on December 6.
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Tragedy struck the very same day. It is impossible here to give more details about these fateful days. They shouted their anger when, at the same time, triumphant Hindus were chanting victory slogans. Violence erupted, even in Calcutta, and took a tragic turn in many places. Bhopal was bad, Surat awful, Bombay tragic, with horrifying murders, followed by systematic massacres.
It could have lasted whatever the forms. It stopped suddenly, due in large degree to a signal being sent on March 12, by the Gulf Muslim mafias, in the form of several bomb blasts that were set off in major public places in Bombay. The message seemed clear enough to most, although it was never acknowledged as such. In any case, the general madness was decreasing. The communal frenzy had reached such paroxysmal levels that it could not reasonably carry on.
The violence diminished. President's rule had been imposed on the four BJP states. Opinion surveys showed that few people still supported the Ramjanmabhoomi movement. As for the Central Government, no matter what was said about its responsibilities, it was not that passive Jaffrelot — Still, it would pay dearly for the whole drama in the general elections. Muslims would never forgive Narasimha Rao.
Violence took place in the communally-sensitive state of Gujarat. In Ahmedabad, several persons lost their lives in April and in October between 30 and 40 victims. The spark for these riots was provided by the L. Advani-led Ram Rath Yatra, which started in the town of Somnath on September 25 and ignited violence in several towns in Gujarat along the way.
The crowd went on the rampage looting Muslim shops.
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